1st 1993 The European Union came into existence
2nd 1721 Peter I was proclaimed Emperor of all the Russias.
3rd 1957 Russia launched space capsule, Sputnik II, which carried a dog named Laika.
4th 1890 The first electrified under-ground railway opened in London.
5th 1605 The “Gunpowder Plot” to blow up the Houses of Parliament and King James I failed.
6th 1917 The 3rd Battle of Ypres ended with the loss of 240,000 troops
7th 1917 The Council of People’s Com-missars established a new government in Russia, with Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin as leaders
8th 1895 X-rays were discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen.
9th 1938 Kristallnacht took place in Ger-many as Nazi mobs vandalized Jewish synagogues, shops and homes.
10th 1871 Explorer Henry Stanley found missionary David Livingstone at Ujiji, Africa, after two years and said “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”
11th 1992 The Church of England voted to allow women priests.
12th 1942 The British Eighth Army under Montgomery took Tobruk.
13th 1973 A state of emergency was declared in Britain as power workers and miners began work slowdowns.
14th 1994 The Channel Tunnel opened to passengers
15th 1969 250,000 protested in Wash-ington, D.C against the Vietnam War.
16th 1918 Hungary became a republic following the break up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
17th 1558 Elizabeth I ascended the throne of England reigning until 1603 .
18th 1916 General Haig called off the First Battle of the Somme after five months. The Allies had advanced 125 square miles at a cost of 420,000 British and 195,000 French soldiers. German losses were over 650,000 men.
19th 1969 News reports emerged of the My Lai massacre by American troops in Vietnam in March 1968.
20th 1992 A fire inside Windsor Castle caused extensive damage.
21st 1783 The first balloon flight took place over Paris.
22nd 1990 Margaret Thatcher announced her resignation after 11 years, the longest term of any British Prime Minister in the 20th century.
23rd 1890 10 yr old Princess Wilhelmina became Queen of the Netherlands upon the death of her father William III.
24th 1874 Joseph Glidden patented his invention of barbed wire.
25th 1992 The Czechoslovak parliament voted to divide the country into Czech and Slovak republics.
26th 1789 Thanksgiving Day was inaugurated to mark the establishment of the American republic.
28th 1919 Lady Nancy Astor became the first female Member of Parliament
29th 1947 Palestine was partitioned into Jewish and Arab land resulting in the establishment of the Jewish state of Israel the following year.
30th 1995 Bill Clinton became the first US president to visit Northern Ireland.